Quantum Nonlocal Communication

My intent with this paper is to outline the theory for a nonlocal communications system. I should begin by describing the nature of this system before I approach other aspects of technical feasibility.

The term 'nonlocal' is a word coined in the field of Quantum Mechanics. It describes the behavior of an electron when a property of its state, such as location, is unknown because of its passage through a diffraction gate or other scenario that can modify the state in question. In the case of a 50% silvered plate of glass, the electron appears as though 50% of its presence has gone through the glass while synchronously 50% has reflected of the silvering and gone a different direction. It is now in a 'half-state' and essentially appears to be two separate electrons, though "both" half-states act as though they are a single electron. The electron in this example is a complete system which continues to act as a unified whole even when each half-state is apparently 'separated'.

A quantum half-state is a very fragile condition that exists in the absence of classical, deterministic, measurements. Quantum states are said to 'collapse' when a deterministic measurement is taken, such as a sensor on either side of a 50/50 gate. If our system has been designed correctly, the particle will have to hit one of the two sensors, imposing determinism upon the system, and collapsing the quantum state. We can, however, perform certain operations upon the half-state without imposing determinism upon it.

As a half-state, its precise presence is not with certainty localized to any given place - instead it has 'tendencies to occur' within a known range. We can, however, assert factors about the particle, and its composite half-states, other than its location. For instance, we know that the total spin of a non-quantum electron is always 0 [zero]. From this observation it has been further shown that the total spin amongst two half-states will total zero as well. Therefore, if we measure the spin of one half-state and we find that it is +1, then we know (and can empirically prove) that the spin of the other half-state is -1. This is a measurement of the total system, on which the appearance of 'distance' has no bearing, and so the effect is considered to be 'nonlocal'

This effect has some rather profound implications, and has been used to form the basis of Quantum Cryptography, a rapidly developing field. However, these non-local effects also have some larger implications to communications. Even though 'distance' makes no impact upon the state of an electron, we are capable of 'separating' two half-states and having them exist in different places, with no boundary on how far apart they may be. This situation allows us to envision a scenario where the nonlocal effects of a half-state pair could be used to send and receive messages from distant locations.

The reality of this is rather striking; if half-states are part of a unified system, then there is no communications delay involved in sending messages. Similarly, since there is no physical or energetic signal to propagate, there is also no chance of interference or other disruption of signal. This also has immense importance for those with security needs - without classical propagation there is no signal to intercept and eavesdrop. The problems of real-time signal encryption and other security measures become moot as long as the physical unit cannot be compromised. From here traditional authenticity validations (password, biometrics, etc.) must still be applied. Line of sight or other relaying systems no longer become relevant because of the removal of three dimensional limitations. Indeed, it becomes easy to conceive scenarios where communication to orbiting facilities, the Moon, Mars, etc. would be greatly simplified.

My confidence in this system comes from a variety of sources. The quantum principles on which it is founded have been validated and experimentally reproduced by scientists all over the world. The problem seems to lie at the root of containment of the half-states, and their non-deterministic 'monitoring' under these condition. My undergraduate research into sonoluminescence lent insight into a similar scenario of containment of a half-state. The sonoluminescent phenomenon is based on harmonic wave coupling that 'links' material-molecular-atomic elements in fractaline phase arrays. If a particle half-state could be 'contained' in a similar way, and brought into resonance with the system, then properties of the half-state would be 'magnified' (made macroscopic) systemically. With these sub-atomic properties magnified, certain polarities could be introduced to one of the half-states, at the macro-scale, that would synchronously operate on all other half-states.

I had attempted to investigate these ideas for some time, with little credible input, due to its highly obscure and different nature. It was in the summer of 2000 that I had the opportunity to speak with Captain Leslie (Jake) Schaffner of the US Navy, who was Director of the Information Operations Policy, which is the Directorate position of the Central Intelligence Community Management Staff. This is essentially the group which oversees Intelligence Operations within the US Government (FBI, CIA, NSA, NRO, NIMA, etc).

At the time he was about to retire from the position. Before he did, however, I had the chance to speak with him on the matter of these ideas. I'd sought his input because of his unique position: he had privy to a great deal of classified US intelligence, and if similar research was being conducted or the technology otherwise existed he would likely have an awareness of it. Even knowing that he would not leak any classified information, I knew that I would be able to gauge the viability of the idea from his response. Captain Schaffner had a very detailed critique of my concept and informed me that the idea of using half-states for nonlocal communication was a concept which certain groups were aware of and had attempted to explore. However, he also conceded that although the effect had never been experimentally produced, he'd never seen the problem approached as I had proposed and encourage me to seek ways of developing the concept.

All of this would seem to imply that not only is this idea scientifically viable - it is on the cusp of being discovered and developed. Most of these initial discoveries were made in the space of single academic semester on an undergraduate budget. It is therefore likely that a test scenario of this effect could be accomplished in a similar amount of time given a reasonable budget and a coordination of sufficiently skilled people. From there, practical implementations and other forms of 'brand-able technology' are the domain of start-ups and other venture operations.

New Alexandria
January, 2002
April, 2003